Application inventory starts with a definition

first_imgWeb sites without dynamic content, hosted within a dynamic web solution such as Microsoft Sharepoint or created with Microsoft Frontpage or another WYSIWYG client. Enterprise Application Developer Every software project I have worked on always started with some form of conflict and complicated interactions.  This usually resolved itself through the use of a definition regarding roles and responsibilities.  That definition kept people on the same page and helped everyone to understand who was doing what.Now depending on when you happened to look at my job title over the last 13 years, you may have seen one of the following: Hosting Platforms (configuration of hardware and application software) Software Developer This means only that I moved from one department to another, however, the physical tasks I employed were the same.  My output may have had a different installer/wrapper/output, however, it was the same.  I designed, developed, tested and deployed an application into our environment.When it was time to define the characteristic (metadata) of an application, we needed to start with definitions. Not only what an “Application” is but what “Software” is and how (if) it differs from each other and from an “Operating System”.This is vitally important because no matter who you talk to, they will have a difference of opinion in this area.  Let me give you an example that we are currently dealing with.  We are implementing a CMDB (Configuration Management Database) for our Service and Support organization.  As our application data is pumped into that solution we had to decide whether it is an application or software.  The CMDB definitions basically stated that software was the core items used to build a hosting platform whereas an application is the code hosted on that platform.  A very specific definition for their very specific implementation.Our definition was much more simple.If it’s coded, if you develop it, it is a software application simply referred to as an “Application”.  This can be developed internally or purchased.  An application is not an operating system.That means that everything running on our environment, that is loaded on top of an operating system, is an application and needs to be inventories.  That also means if it is a web-based solution, with software code, hosted within a web-hosting solution, however, it is still an application.We did draw a very discreet line in that we did not want to inventory certain things.  Those are items that are “configured” inside of other applications.  Item such as: Software Engineer Templates configured for an application. This minimizes the possibility that we inventory applications that are sitting in a box, not installed on the environment.  It also means that items we paid for, installed, licensed and such, are included.  Whether on a server or on a client, we need to know about them so that we can work towards the simplification of our inventory.Next I will cover how we have gone about gathering this data.  Some approaches work well while others don’t.  Additionally, before you start gathering data you must have a solid review, maintenance and data quality processes in place or the data will be of no use for future analysis.Have you undergone a similiar process?  Are you struggling with doing this inside your company?  Have questions?  Let us know.center_img Installed on Intel (or contracted) hardware? Application Developer Does this have (or has it ever had) a development/support team? Fileshare Does this have (or has it ever had) a development/release process? To put forth some simple rules, that people can evaluate their “Application” before attempting to add it for evaluation, we came up wtih some simple rules.  It has to meet all of these with a yes response. Initially used by more than one person (or application) at Intel?last_img read more

Intel® vPro™ Technology Enables Remote Manageability of PCs Employing Encrypted Disk Technology whitepaper

first_imgAlthough Danbury is the ultimate solution for Disk Encryption and Remote Manageability, the following whitepaper provides a reference design for using Intel® vPro™ Technology and Serial Over LAN (SOL) as a means to perform remote disk drive unlock on client boot up. Whitepaper: Intel® vProTM Technology Enables Remote Manageability of PCs Employing Encrypted Disk Technology Matt Royerlast_img

Technology Going Green – Experts Debate The Issues

first_imgData center efficiency: AC vs DC power Data center efficiency: liquid vs air cooling In addition to the debates, the event features keynotes from Lorie Wigle, general manager for Intel’s Eco-Technology Program Office and president, Climate Savers Computing Initiative and Andrew Fanara, head of the ENERGY STAR product development team, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Register to attend in person or tune into Open Port’s Blog Talk Radio the day following the seminar to hear interviews with the speakers. tThis debate should be quite compelling with industry experts from esteemed organizations like IDC, The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Emerson Network Power, Intel, Microsoft, InfoWorld, and Verari Systems–to name a few. View the complete schedule and register today for this one-of-a-kind opportunity. Client: thin vs. thick client I remember back when I worked in the field of organic agriculture and environmental marketing. No one had a clue what I meant when I referred to the importance of “going green.” Yet today the green debate has rapidly spread from the rows of organic farms to the halls of corporations all over the world. Even technology companies are joining the movement and debating the issues at hand.On June 11, 2008 experts on various sides of the eco-technology issues will converge in Santa Clara to debate these “hot” topics:last_img read more

Energy Management vs. Power Management in the Data Center, Take 2

first_imgThe extra dynamic power range comes at the expense of instituting additional processes and operational complexity.  However, please note that there are immediate benefits in power and energy management accrued through a simple equipment refresh.  IBM reports an 11X performance gain for Nehalem-based HS22 blade servers versus the HS20 model only three years old.  Network World reports a similar figure, a ten-fold increase in performance, not just ten percent. The relationship is not always linear, but the figure illustrates the concept.  On the x-axis  we have the workload that can range from 0 to 1, that is, 0 to 100 percent.  P(baseline) is the power consumption at idle, and P(spread) is the power proportional computing dynamic range between P(baseline) and power consumption at 100 percent workload.  A low P(baseline) is better because it means a low power consumption at idle.  For a Nehalem-based server, P(baseline) is roughly 50 percent of power consumption at full utilization, which is remarkable, considering that it represents a 20 percent over the number we observed for the prior generation, Bensley-based servers.  The 50 percent figure is a number we have observed in our lab for a whole server, not just the CPU alone. Upgrading the electrical power infrastructure to accommodate additional servers is not an option in most data centers today.  Landing additional servers at a facility that’s working at the limit of thermal capacity leads to the formation of hot spots, this assuming that electrical capacity limits are not reached first with no room left in certain branch circuits. Another useful figure of merit for power management is the dynamic range for power proportional computing.  Power consumption in servers today is a function of workload as depicted below: I will be elaborating on some of these ideas at the PDCS003 Cloud Power Management with the Intel(r) Nehalem Platform class at the upcoming Intel Developer Forum in San Francisco on the week of September 20th.  Please consider yourself invited to join me if you are planning to attend this conference. If a 50 percent P(baseline) looks outstanding, we can do even better for certain application environments such as load-balanced front end Web server pools and the implementation of cloud services through clustered, virtualized servers.  We can achieve this effect through the application of platooning.  For instance, consider a pool of 16 servers.  If the pools is idle, all the servers except one can be put to sleep.  The single idle server is consuming only half the power of a fully loaded server, consuming one half of one sixteenth of the cluster power.  The dormant servers still draw about 2 percent of full power.  Hence, after doing the math, the total power consumption for the cluster at idle will be about 8 percent of the full cluster power consumption.  Hence for a clustered deployment, the power dynamic range has been increased from 2:1 for a single server to about 12:1 for the cluster as a whole. The CPU is not running in any of the S-states than S0.  The selection of a specific state depends on how fast that particular server is needed online.  It takes longer to bring up a server online in the lower energy states.  Servers in G3 may actually be unracked and put in storage for seasonal equipment allocation. There are two types of potentially useful figures of merit, one for power management and one for energy management.  A metric for power management allows us to track operational “goodness”, making sure that power draw never exceeds limits imposed by the infrastructure.  The second metric tracks power saved over time, which is energy saved.  Energy not consumed goes directly to the bottom line of the data center operator. In the figure below note that each platoon is defined by the application of a specific technology or state within each  technology.  This way it is possible to optimize the system behavior around the particular operational limitations of the technology.  The graph below is a generalization of the platooning graph in the prior article.  For instance, a power capped server will impose certain performance limitations to workloads, and hence we assign non time critical workloads to that platoon.  By definition, an idling server cannot have any workloads; the moment a workload lands on it it’s no longer idle, and its power consumption will rise. A virtualized environment makes it easier to rebalance workloads across active (unconstrained and power capped) servers.  If servers are being used as a CPU cycle engines, it may be sufficient to idle or put to sleep the subset of servers not needed. I would like to elaborate on the topic energy vs. power management in my previous entry. Please note that a mechanism that yields significant power savings may not necessarily yield high energy savings.  For instance, the application of Intel(r) Dynamic Power Node Manager (DPNM) can potentially bring power consumption by over 100 watts, from 300 watts at full load to 200 watts in a dual-socket 2U Nehalem server that we tested in our lab.  However, if DPNM is used as a guard rail mechanism, to limit power consumption if a certain threshold is violated, DPNM may never kick in, and hence energy savings will be zero for practical purposes.  The reason why we do this is because DPNM works best only under certain operating conditions, namely high loading factors, and because it works through frequency and voltage scaling, it brings a performance tradeoff. To understand the dynamic between power and energy management let’s look at the graph below and imagine a server without any power management mechanisms whatsoever.  The power consumed by that server would be P(unmanaged) regardless of any operating condition.  Most servers today have a number of mechanisms operating concurrently, and hence the actual power consumed at any given time t is P(actual)(t).  The difference P(unmanaged) – P(actual) is the power saved.  The power saved carried over time t(1) through t(2) yields the energy saved.last_img read more

Business Continuity and Intelligence From the Other Side of the Pond

first_imgI’m in England (outside of London in Hampshire) for Intel’s  Enterprise Board of Advisors (EBOA). This is an annual event where we meet with key end user customers to get  their perspectives on current technology and issues confronting IT organizations. It includes both client and server discussions. The specifics are confidential, but I can  share my interpretations with you.I’m in attendance because we are doing a breakout  session focused on Business Intelligence and Database, with a goal of understanding customer reactions to everything from Database and BI appliances to recent mergers and acquisitions like EMC & Greenplum, IBM  & Netezza and the evolution of new technologies such as SAP HANA ,  Columnar stores , etc.What seems to be fueling a lot of discussion is a lengthy  paper by Philip Winslow, a Research Analyst at Credit Suisse, entitled:  “The Need for Speed – How In-Memory and Flash could transform IT architectures and drive the next ‘Killer Apps’”  While you would need to acquire the full paper  from Credit Suisse we do have a summary presentation on The  Need For Speed paper.In short form, the paper proposes that bigger, cheaper memory and solid-state storage are creating new opportunities for breakthroughs in both OLTP and real-time analytics. The paper also outlines which software vendors are best prepared to exploit  this market evolution. I happen to think they are right, the only question is exactly when it all comes together to create the right performance at the right  price point.I think REAL, real-time BI is the Holy Grail, and there  isn’t a business out there that doesn’t want to make smarter, timelier decisions, with the flexibility to do REAL ad-hoc queries in response to changing market situations. The question has always been what does it cost and what’s the ROI? The big guys do it today  – they just spend a lot of money. The  proposition is that NVRAM could deliver price points that make this a reality  for the masses –then it’s just a “mere matter of software.”I suggest you check out the Winslow Slides, and  stay tuned to my next blog which will actually report back on the high points  of what we heard from the advisors.I’d love to hear your reactions to Winslow’s views.last_img read more

Data Cleansing, Data Lakes, and Business Intelligence at IT@Intel

first_imgMy previous posts on how big data and business intelligence can add value have talked about Intel IT groups’ other than my own.  With this blog, I discuss big data, business intelligence, and data lakes in the context of the IT@Intel group.  When we recently transitioned a key internal operational tool to a SaaS based solution, we encountered many of the data issues that I have posted about.  I’ll talk first about the data management needs of a group like IT@Intel, go over the issues we encountered, and then explain about why using our marketing data lake has tremendous appeal.What kind of information does IT@Intel need to manage?  For content managers like myself, we need to keep track of the white papers and other collateral that we produce.  “Keeping track” includes noting the project’s status, the location (URLs) of white papers, slideshares, and other IT@Intel collateral, and the Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) whose content we produce. Moving to a new tool means required that we take an extract of our tool’s data for import into the new tool.  For our purposes, it seemed quick and simple – dumping to data to a CSV file and uploading that file.That last part ended up being neither straightforward nor easy.  Like the efforts to implement a data wall and to integrate data for demand forecasting, data cleansing took significant effort.  While we record the URLs of our content, these can change over time as the intel.com website is periodically re-architected and less viewed content gets archived.  Data fields changed over time, with some being added and some becoming obsolete.   In other cases, data was in the wrong format. To facility the data transfer, I spent significant time writing scripts that validated records, eliminated obsolete fields, and fixed incorrectly formatted data.This work was critical for our tools transition, but it did not give us any new insights.  We want to integrate our internal data with usage data that gleaned from other sources.    This would enable us to see what subject areas are the most in demand and what SMEs generate the most viewed content.  Ideally, we would like to be able to see how much of our content directly lead to a sale, and we would like to analyze and visualize this data ourselves without involving other IT groups.  The Intel Analytics Hub (IAH), The Data Lake built for Intel’s marketing efforts (pictured to the right), would seem to be the perfect place to integrate and analyze this data.   Having all related data in one place for access, integration, and analysis would make insight generation much easier, as opposed to having to do the integration and ETLs ourselves.  While storing important IT@Intel data in a SaaS solution might seem problematic for integration, but the data lake has been designed to easily import that kind of data.  Much of the data in the IAH is from external sources.Doing data cleansing work gave me a much better appreciation of the work that our Big Data and Business Intelligence staff do every day.  Frameworks like Hadoop and Spark get much publicity about their power, but in order to use these tools, the unglamorous work of data validation and cleansing must be done.   An old saying in IT is “Garbage In Garbage Out.” That statement is true no matter how powerful a tool you use.last_img read more

Biggest Cybercriminal Ad-Fraud Rakes in Millions per Day

first_imgInterested in more? Follow me on Twitter (@Matt_Rosenquist)Opens in a new window and LinkedInOpens in a new window to hear insights and what is going on in cybersecurity. Methbot is a state-of-the-art ad fraud infrastructure, capable of hosting legitimate videos and serving them to 300 million fake viewers a day. Each view earns the criminals about $13, translating to around four million dollars a day. Over the past few months, Methbot has pulled in an estimated $180 million. It represents one of the most sophisticated and elaborate ad-fraud networks ever seen.Targeting Web AdvertisingVideo advertising is big business. Video ads on top-visited web sites command the highest prices in digital advertising. Hosting these videos and then bringing in massive viewers is extremely lucrative. Methbot hosts these videos, on what appears to be a top ranked site, then brings in millions of fake ‘views’. This earns them advertising rates for the CPM (Cost per Thousand) of views. Depending on the site, CPM’s ranged from $3 to $36 per thousand views. The victims are those companies who pay for legitimate views of their marketing videos, but in actuality get no real people paying attention for their financial investment.Scam WalkthroughImagine you are a company looking to promote a new product. You decide to create a marketing video and advertise on Internet sites. You want visible sites, with lots of visitors. Specifically, you want customers in your geography and would prefer those who are active in social media. They might amplify your ads or talk about how they like your products. You go through an advertising agency who makes your promotional video available to the masses of potential websites. You agree on a price you will pay for legitimate viewer ‘impressions’ who watch your video. Based upon your budget you set a CPM of $10. So for any site which aligns to your desired market, you will pay $10 for every thousand people the site convinces to watch your video. Sounds fair.  This is what advertising is about.Then Methbot shows up. It takes your nice video and places it on hundreds of sites which match your desired market. Then like magic, as you had hoped, millions of visitors start watching your video! You are of course excited. Every day 1 million people are watching and being influenced by your marketing video. Surely sales will go up. Paying the $10,000 advertising fee per day (1 million impressions / 1000 X $10) is absolutely worth it. It is what you wanted, except sales don’t go up. All those ‘impressions’ don’t seem to have the desired effect, because no real person actually watched your video. They were hosted on specially crafted sites and visited only by robots made to appear as potential customers of your product, in the right geography, logged into social media, and even moving the mouse around. You pay for advertising and get nothing in return. Welcome to the Ad-fraud attention economy.Sophisticated InfrastructureThe size and complexity of this criminal endeavor is mind shattering. Methbot is a multipart set of tools, servers, fraudulent IP registrations, and software manipulations, all combined for a single purpose: to defraud the web advertising economy with maximum effect.At its core, Methbot created phony users that appeared to view advertising videos hosted on their site, so they would earn money from the ‘impressions’ that would be tabulated. To accomplish this, the organized criminals had to create a massive infrastructure that worked together at scale. It forged network address credentials to make it appear the users were from preferred geographies, thereby increasing the costs they could charge. It created 250,000 counterfeit web pages, that nobody was actually visiting, just to host the legitimate videos. The attackers purchased over six-thousand domains for these websites, so as to appear as if they were part of coveted web properties. Again, to boost the CPM rates.  It is estimated that between 8k to 12k dedicated servers were running customized software to generate 300 million fake video impressions daily. This software spoofed users web browsers, mouse activity, and even went as far as to make it look like these users were logged into their Facebook accounts to make the scam believable. All fake.The investment of time, resources, and up-front costs was likely very substantial. Creating, testing, and launching a fraud network of this size is a big undertaking. There is likely an organized team of professionals behind Methbot.Ad Networks Need to Rethink their ProcessesOnline advertising networks have always been targeted by fraudsters, but have not ever seen anything at this scale. The infrastructure itself was focused on video ads, but easily could be directed at just about any type of web advertising with the same result. The ad networks will need to adjust their practices, tools, and processes in order to compensate with this level of fraud sophistication.Methbot was so powerful, in part, due to its conformance to the VAST protocol that dominates the Video ad industry. VAST (video Ad Serving Template) is a specification created by the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB). The latest VAST version 4.0Opens in a new window was released in January of 2016. It is a web structure that allows for the monetization of digital videos in the advertising marketplace. It allows for ads to be published by sites and tracks the impressions in exchange for payment. The criminals were savvy in using the VAST based networks to get and service contracts in an automated fashion. It allowed them to scale quickly.The InvestigationHuge recognition goes to the team at WhiteOpsOpens in a new window for detecting and investigating this criminal infrastructure. WhiteOps has conducted an excellent investigation for the nodes and networks they can see. It is very likely this goes well beyond their vision horizon. Law enforcement will likely need to continue to uncover where the boundaries really are. WhiteOps has published an easy-to-read whitepaperOpens in a new window, list of compromised IP addresses, spoofed domains, IP ranges, and a full list of URL’s. Such information will help all interested parties to understand if they have been scammed and how to block this current incarnation of Methbot.Initial findings by WhiteOps, pointed the finger to cybercriminals based out of Russia. But they did not release any specific supporting data, opting to keep it private at the moment. Likely to be provided to authorities as part of attribution aspects of the investigation.Authorities will have an interesting time pursuing those behind it. First, they will need to understand the overall scope and assets involved. Shutting down the fraudulent engine is the immediate priority, while maintaining all necessary evidence. Figuring out who is behind it and tracking the money will be the next step. Victims will want reparations. Pursuing the criminals, having them arrested, and extradited if necessary will be the final hurdle to begin formal prosecution proceedings.The ThreatsThe cybercriminals who setup Methbot are organized, skilled, knowledgeable, and brazen. They have successfully brought to life a money factory for fraud. Although active for almost 2 months, I suspect the criminals expected it to remain undetected for much longer. Methbot is a massive investment and undertaking. I expect the organized criminals behind it to remain active, adapt to their discovery, and continue to use their resources to continue fraudulent activities at a spectacular level. I think Methbot version-1 will be impacted and to some extent dismantled, but I am confident there will be a Methbot v2 infrastructure which will rise from the ashes. Whomever this cybercriminal team is, they are too good to just roll-over and give up.This fight has just begun.last_img read more

Stress Free: Intel’s Windows* 10 Self-Service Upgrade

first_imgAt Intel, we made a self-service Microsoft Windows* 10 in-place upgrade available for our employees. Using this process, we’ve successfully upgraded more than 50,000 PCs, and we expect to double this by the end of 2018. At that point, nearly our entire fleet of PCs will have gone through this process.Before we introduced our new upgrade process, employees needed to turn their PC over to IT to receive an operating system (OS) upgrade. Not only was this labor intensive and time consuming, it caused our employees anxiety. This was due to the fact that more than 3,000 enterprise applications are in use at Intel. And our employees knew that application incompatibility issues, caused by the upgrade, could prevent them from getting back to work.Our new process, described in the IT@Intel white paper, Advancing the User Experience with Intel® Architecture-Based Laptops and Microsoft Windows* 10, eliminates the concern regarding incompatibility issues, as we make application readiness an essential step that occurs before we launch our new upgrade procedures. We accomplished this by moving to an accelerated application-testing process that uses virtual machines, allowing us to make corrections before users perform the self-service Windows* 10 in-place upgrade on their PCs.Other benefits of this process include speed and flexibility. The new upgrade process takes 60 to 90 minutes to complete. Compare that with the typical IT technician-assisted OS upgrade that takes at least a half-day. And because it is a self-service process, Intel employees can choose when and where they upgrade their PC. They can run it at the office while they go to lunch, and come back and resume their work, or they can run it on their laptop when they’re at home.Why upgrade? Windows* 10 offers an expanding application and driver ecosystem—which can increase employee productivity—compared to older versions of Windows*. Intel will continue to align with the Windows* as a Service cadence, in order to keep pace with each new release of Windows* 10. Our new self-service in-place upgrade process enables us to transition to a continually updated OS model, avoiding the disruption and downtime associated with major OS upgrades.Developing our self-service, in-place upgrade process for Windows* 10 required multiple phases: Phase 1 (early adopters), Phase 2 (limited deployment), Phase 3 (general availability), and Phase 4 (standard on all devices). We are now in Phase 3.To ensure success at each phase, we monitored the in-place upgrade activities. Using our system tracking tools, we saw failures rates of less than 5 percent for all Windows* 10 self-service upgrades. Of those failures, the vast majority gracefully reverted back to their previous OS version. We then remotely addressed the issue and performed the upgrade. More than 95 percent of the upgrades went smoothly, with our users giving the procedure positive reviews.By going through multiple phases, we learned how to improve the process and we have much more to share. For more information about Intel IT’s self-service deployment of Windows* 10, read the most recent version of the IT@Intel white paper, Advancing the User Experience with Intel® Architecture-Based Laptops and Microsoft Windows* 10.last_img read more

HHS Takes $1 Billion “Step” Toward Making Swine Flu Vaccine

first_imgKathleen Sebelius, secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), today announced the decision to spend $1 billion of existing funds on what a press release gingerly called “steps necessary to prepare for potential commercial-scale production of a candidate vaccine for the novel Influenza A (H1N1).”The press release says HHS will spend the money on vaccine ingredients needed for commercial-scale production and for the early clinical tests needed to determine how much of this and how much of that to put into the final product. Specifically, influenza vaccines contain the hemagglutinin protein that studs the surface of the virus, the so-called antigen that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. In countries outside of the United States, vaccine makers add a booster, or adjuvant, to increase potency, which increases the amount of final product they can make from a given amount of antigen—or reduces the number of doses ultimately needed to trigger a robust antibody response. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) currently does not license the use of any influenza vaccines that contain adjuvants, it has approved adjuvant-containing vaccines against many other diseases. (FDA does not license adjuvants, per se, but considers them as an integral ingredient of final products that use them.) HHS spokesperson Bill Hall told ScienceInsider that the money will purchase 20 million doses of vaccine, the amount needed to protect “critical infrastructure personnel and vulnerable populations.” But the $1 billion only covers the cost of bulk ingredients, not a final product that is properly formulated, put into vials, and approved by FDA. And Hall stressed that there has been “no decision” about whether to go into full-scale production to make enough vaccine for the entire country’s 304 million people. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Hall said three companies will receive two-thirds of the money to produce antigen and adjuvant: Novartis ($288.8 million), GlaxoSmithKline ($181.1 million), and Sanofi-Pasteur ($190.6 million). Sanofi-Pasteur will make only antigen, and Novartis and GlaxoSmithKline will make antigen and their novel, proprietary, “next generation” adjuvants—neither of which has ever been used in a vaccine that has received approval by FDA. Another $150 million will go toward conducting clinical trials run by these three companies and MedImmune, in Rockville, Maryland, and CSL Limited, in Melbourne, Australia. Hall said the remainder will go to companies that still are negotiating with HHS. “Our goal throughout this new H1N1 outbreak has been to stay one step ahead of the virus,” said Sebelius in the HHS release. “The actions we are taking today will help us be prepared if a vaccine is needed.”last_img read more

Eqypt’s Antiquities Boss Is Sacked

first_imgAfter nearly a decade as chief of Egypt’s antiquities, Zahi Hawass is now out of a job. The 64-year-old archaeologist was fired yesterday by Prime Minister Essam Sharaf as part of a wider shakeup of his cabinet. Protestors at Cairo’s Tahrir Square had been calling for his ouster as minister of antiquities for months. “All the devils united against me,” Hawass told Science Insider. The country’s most prominent figure in archaeology, Hawass was instrumental in sending large blockbuster exhibits abroad, creating a host of new museums and secure storerooms, and pressuring foreign excavators to publish their finds more quickly. But he was also criticized for his portrayal on American television of archaeology as treasure hunting, excoriated for his dictatorial management style, and accused of shoddy research in carrying out his own digs. Sharaf is said to have appointed Abdel-Fattah El-Banna as Hawass’ replacement, but there are reports that protestors have rejected that nomination, and that Sharaf might reverse his decision and name someone else. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) El-Banna is an engineer and stone specialist at Cairo University with experience in restoring ancient buildings. He has been an outspoken critic of Hawass in recent months, accusing him of being involved in the illegal antiquities trade, a charge that Hawass denies. Egyptian critics say they are delighted by the departure of Hawass, who became a minister in January when the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA), the organization he has led since 2002, was given Cabinet status. “Finally we got rid of him,” says Amany Taha, a Cairo tour guide active in the protests. But some foreign archaeologists say they will be sorry to lose Hawass, who has been a dynamic if controversial leader of the country’s ancient monuments. “In the ensuing free-for-all, now that he is gone, I beg you to remember all the good that Zahi did for Egypt and Egyptian antiquities in his term as SCA,” says W. Raymond Johnson, an archaeologist of the University of Chicago in Illinois who works at Luxor. “It’s easy to condemn, much harder to give credit for what is due.” Hawass resigned in March to protest the looting of sites, but was recalled to help bring tourists back to Egypt. For now, Hawass says, “I will rest.”last_img read more

Jump in Indian Student Enrollment Supports U.S. Graduate Schools

first_imgMore foreign students are enrolling in U.S. graduate schools, with an influx of Indians making up for a slowing flow of students from China Related Itemslast_img

NRI Chooses US Court Over Indian Judicial System

first_imgIn an unusual case, a non-resident Keralite (NRK) living in the US has chosen a court there over the Indian judicial system to proceed against another US-based NRK in a case alleging cheating related to a property transaction. Related Itemslast_img

Fish diversity exploded when dinosaurs went extinct

first_imgThe ray-finned fishes, so called because their fins are supported by bony spines or rays, make up more than 95% of all fish species. They come in all shapes and sizes, from the showy lionfish (pictured above) to the delicious Atlantic salmon. Yet paleontologists have been unsure when and why ray-finned fishes exploded into such prominence, in large part because the preservation of fish fossils is a very hit-or-miss affair. Now, researchers have taken a new approach to the problem: They looked at marine sediments taken from deep-sea cores at six sites around the world, including the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. To figure out when ray-finned fish numbers took off, they calculated the ratio of fossilized teeth from ray-finned fishes to the fossilized scales from another major group of fish: sharks. As they report online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, this ratio shows that sharks well outnumbered the ray-finned fish at the end of the Cretaceous, about 66 million years ago. That was when dinosaurs, ammonites, and most marine reptiles went extinct, probably because of a large asteroid hitting Earth. After the extinction event, the ratio of these ray-finned fish remains shot up dramatically, quickly outnumbering those of sharks. Although the sharks also survived the end of the Cretaceous, their numbers appear to have remained flat, whereas the size and diversity of ray-finned fish populations took off. The researchers suggest that the mass extinction, especially of ammonites (which probably competed with fish for food), allowed the ray-fins to exploit new ecological niches and launched what the authors call a “new age of fish.”last_img read more

Amid agony, scientists discover world’s first venomous frog

first_imgBrazilian biologists have discovered the world’s first venomous frog the hard way.  When Carlos Jared of the Butantan Institute in São Paulo, Brazil, picked up a Brazilian hylid frog (Corythomantis greening, pictured)—a small, lumpy, green amphibian—while doing fieldwork in a jungle in the Goytacazes National Forest near the southwest coast of Brazil, the frog raked the spines hidden within its upper lip across his hand. He dropped the frog, and excruciating pain shot up his arm for the next 5 hours. Several other species of frogs are poisonous, but until now none have been shown to be venomous—that is injecting a toxin into their host. C. greening’s venom is twice as potent as that of the deadly pit viper, the researchers report online today in Current Biology. The team found another venomous Brazilian hylid frog, Aparasphenodon brunoi, also in the Goytacazes National Forest. Its venom was a whopping 25 times more deadly than that of a pit viper, but this time the researchers were smart—they didn’t pick it up. Both frogs deliver their venom from head spines resting in toxic glands in their skin. When the animals attack, the skin contracts and the poison-coated spines protrude from the frog’s lip. Researchers imagine as a hungry predator closes its mouth over the frog, it begins shaking its head and jabbing the spines into every corner a frog’s face can fit. These two frog species are not very closely related, so researchers think several more frogs could have evolved to be venomous. It’s possible the adaptation evolved multiple times in the perilous rainforests, but scientists just never picked up on it.last_img read more

Floating poop reveals the surprising bacterial partners of whales

first_imgPerhaps the least glamorous way to study whales is to race to where they just surfaced to scoop up their poop. But the floating feces have revealed a surprise about the microbes living in these giant marine mammals’ guts. Although baleen whales are carnivores, filter-feeding on fish, krill, and other crustaceans, some of the microbes in their bellies look more like those of a vegetarian, microbiologists reported yesterday in Nature Communications. When this research team isolated and sequenced DNA from humpback and right whale feces, they found the genetic signatures of protein-digesting microbes like those in a lion or a tiger. But they also found quite a few microbes commonly found in cows. Other studies have shown mammals tend to have microbiomes similar to their ancestors’, and whales did descend from the same land animals as cows and hippos. But the researchers think the cowlike microbes may have a functional role, digesting the carbohydrates in whales’ diets, including a complex starch called chitin that makes up the shells and other body parts of crustaceans.  From the gut’s perspective, digesting chitin is as big a challenge as cellulose, the tough stuff that cows tackle with multiple stomachs and cud-chewing.last_img read more

A week of political bloodletting, but U.K. science minister keeps his job

first_imgFor researchers worried about the future of science in the United Kingdom, the news was something to hold onto. Late on Friday, Jo Johnson announced he will remain as science minister, despite a massive shakeup of the government cabinet. “I’m happy he’s kept the same job,” says Sarah Main, director of the advocacy group Campaign for Science and Engineering in London. “It’s good for continuity.” It’s not exactly the same job, and it may have become harder, because Johnson will have two bosses—one for research and one for universities—in the new government. Main and other lobbyists say it will be crucial to keep these two sectors closely linked as the United Kingdom slowly figures out what last month’s referendum to leave the European Union means for its future.Theresa May became prime minister after the vote for a Brexit, which has created great uncertainty about research in the United Kingdom. The tumult continued last week as a raft of senior ministers were fired and hired. As part of the major reshuffling, May separated science and higher education into two departments. (The university portfolio has moved into the Department of Education, while the research portfolio remains part of what has been renamed the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy.) One reason why Johnson may have escaped the ax is that science minister is a relatively low-profile position in the government. Another possibility, Main says, is that Parliament is deliberating over a higher education reform bill. Johnson was a lead author and advocate for this bill, which is intended to improve the evaluation of teaching and make other changes to universities. The bill would also restructure the research councils, which provide peer-reviewed grants. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Johnson, who has been in the job for a year, will now report to both departments. Main says that the split brief makes the best of the situation, because Johnson will be able to advocate for keeping the research and university sectors well connected. The Russell Group, an association of 24 research universities in the United Kingdom, also hopes the two departments will work together cheek to cheek. “[S]cience and research are fundamental functions of our universities and one of our key objectives is to ensure that research informs teaching and vice-versa,” Wendy Piatt, director of the Russell Group in London, wrote in a statement.last_img read more

Thinking of crowdfunding your science? Study suggests some tips

first_imgOther factors that could not be measured during the page analysis may also significantly influence a project’s success, Schäfer says. Most notably, the size of a scientist’s personal and professional networks, and how much a researcher promotes a project on his or her own, can be important.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Those two factors are by far more critical than the content on the page, says conservation biologist Jai Ranganathan in Santa Barbara, California, co-founder of the SciFund Challenge Network. Crowdfunding can be part of researchers’ public outreach efforts, he believes, and people give because “they feel a connection to the person” who is doing the fundraising—not necessarily to the science. That’s why having a preexisting connection to potential donors is essential, he says, adding that scientists can create such connections through blogging, posting on social media, and giving public talks. Ranganathan compares the crowdfunding process to how public radio stations raise money: First they develop a rapport with an audience through their programming, then they ask them for money. To tease out what separates science crowdfunding triumphs from flops, a team led by science communications scholar Mike Schäfer of the University of Zurich in Switzerland examined the content of the webpages for 371 recent campaigns. Four traits stood out for those that achieved their goals, the researchers report in Public Understanding of Science. Successful campaigns tended to: Use a crowdfunding platform that specializes in raising money for science, and not just any kind of project. Although sites like Kickstarter take all comers, platforms such as Experiment.com, Medstartr.com, and Petridish.org only present scientific projects. The study looked at those sites as well as projects on Sciflies.org and a German language platform, Sciencestarter.de. Present the project with a funny video. Good visuals and a sense of humor improved success. Engage with potential donors. Projects that answered questions from interested donors and posted lab notes fared better. Target a small amount of money. The projects included in the study raised $4000 on average, with 30% of projects receiving less than $1000. The more money a project sought, the lower the chance it reached its goal, the researchers found.center_img Thinking small, being engaging, and having a sense of humor don’t hurt. Those are a few of the traits of successful science crowdfunding efforts that emerge from a recent study that examined nearly 400 campaigns. But having a large network and some promotional savvy may be more crucial.Crowdfunding—raising money for a project through online appeals—has taken off in recent years for everything from making movies to building water-saving faucets. Scientists have tried to tap internet donors, too, with mixed success. Scientists raising funds for the world’s first imaging study of the brain on LSD raised more than $65,000 earlier this year, more than twice their goal. But other teams have fallen short of reaching more modest targets.last_img read more